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The Earth Charter - Agenda for Totalitarianism

By Lee Penn

Summary:

The United Religions Initiative supports the push by Maurice Strong and Mikhail Gorbachev, founders of Green Cross International, for an Earth Charter. Gorbachev views this proposed Earth Charter as "a kind of Ten Commandments, a 'Sermon on the Mount,' that provides a guide for human behavior toward the environment in the next century and beyond." (11) Proponents of the Earth Charter will seek endorsement of the treaty from those who attend the Parliament of World Religions in December 1999. The Charter is a far-reaching document, one that would reshape the economy and politics of all nations if adopted. The "Green Cross Earth Charter Philosophy" - a document from the Earth Council web site - makes the philosophy and goals of the proposed new treaty clear: "The protection of the Biosphere, as the Common Interest of Humanity, must not be subservient to the rules of state sovereignty, demands of the free market or individual rights." (12)

4,300 words/56 footnotes/11 pages

Conditions of use:

This story is an extract from a book-length manuscript by me titled "False Dawn, Real Darkness: the Millennial Delusions of the United Religions and the New Age Movement." You may re-distribute this story by hard copy or electronically, and you may abridge or quote from this story - IF you give credit to Lee Penn as the author, and IF you include - in the body or as a footnote - the following statement:

"An abridged version of this information is appearing in the series of articles titled "The United Religions Initiative: Foundations for a World Religion" (Part 1 and Part 2). The first article was published in the spring of 1999, and the second part is being published in the fall of 1999 by the Journal of the Spiritual Counterfeits Project. You may order the complete stories from the Journal, or subscribe to the Journal, by calling (510) 540-0300, or by writing to the Spiritual Counterfeits Project, Post Office Box 4308, Berkeley, CA 94704, or by visiting the SCP web site, http://www.scp-inc.org/."

Story:

The agenda of the Earth Charter: velvet glove, iron fist

The "creative minorities" at Gorbachev's State of the World Forum (SWF) urge us to adopt the Earth Charter. (1068) The reason given is that, as Gorbachev says, "the balance in relations between man and nature has been upset and the very survival of mankind is in jeopardy. Indeed, the planet is slowly dying." (1069)

History of the Earth Charter

The Earth Charter is the brainchild of Gorbachev (acting as chairman of Green Cross International) and Maurice Strong, a wealthy and influential proponent of world government.(1070) (Ted Turner is involved here, too - as a member of the Green Cross International board,(1071) and as a recipient of the Green Cross International "Founder's Award" in 1998.(1072)

Gorbachev and Strong wrote the Charter to rectify what they saw as the excessively "anthropocentric emphasis" of the Declaration on the Environment produced at the 1992 UN conference in Rio de Janeiro. (1073) Maurice Strong also says, "We must reinstate in our lives the ethic of love and respect for the Earth which traditional peoples have retained as central to their value systems." (1074) (Yet again, Rousseau's Noble Savage makes his appearance.)

Maurice Strong, promoter of "indigenous values"

To put his beliefs into action, Strong and his wife have established the Manitou Foundation,(1075) providing land in the Crestone, Colorado area to an eclectic mix of religious groups, including the Crestone Mountain Zen Center, the Spiritual Life Institute (a Catholic Carmelite monastery), the Haidakhandi Universal Ashram, the Sri Aurobindo Learning Center, Mangala Shri Bhuti (Tibetan Buddhists), and Karma Thegsum Tashi Gomang (a planned Tibetan medical institute).(1076) The Strongs have located their spiritual center in the Colorado mountains because:

"The Strongs learned that since antiquity indigenous peoples had revered this pristine wilderness as a place for conducting their vision quests and receiving shamanic trainings. It is prophesied that the world's religious traditions would gather here and help move the world toward globally conscious co-existence and co-creation."(1077)

The Earth Council and the Fetzer Institute have a worldwide plan to promote "indigenous cultural and spiritual values" and to incorporate indigenous peoples into "the UN system":

"Some of the proposed actions to preserve indigenous cultural and spiritual values are: the promotion and recognition of ancestral knowledge and its incorporation within national educational programmes; exchange of knowledge among indigenous peoples, elders, and youth, and among these peoples and other sectors; exchange of practices, such as sustainable agricultural techniques, traditional medicine, art, and crafts; teachings about the relationship between spiritual values and traditional knowledge and practices; promote the understanding of Indigenous Peoples philosophy; various activities, publications, and programmes directed towards youth; and the broadcasting of videos, television, and radio programmes about indigenous cultures. These actions, which will be pursued at local, national, and international levels, are also aimed at ensuring the participation of Indigenous Peoples in activities related to the programmes of the Earth Council, and within the context of the UN system."(1078)

Goal of the Earth Charter: "a kind of Ten Commandments"

Gorbachev says of the Earth Charter: "We also need a new international environmental legal code rooted in an Earth charter - a covenant similar to the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights. ... My hope is that this charter will be a kind of Ten Commandments, a 'Sermon on the Mount,' that provides a guide for human behavior toward the environment in the next century and beyond."(1079) Maurice Strong says the same: "The real goal of the Earth Charter is that it will in fact become like the Ten Commandments, like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights."(1080) This could mean that Gorbachev and Strong view themselves as legitimate successors to Moses and - in the case of Gorbachev - to Jesus.

One of the changes that Gorbachev envisions is world government. At the time he founded Green Cross, he said:

"The emerging 'environmentalization' of our civilization and the need for vigorous action in the interest of the entire global community will inevitably have multiple political consequences. Perhaps the most important of them will be a gradual change in the status of the United Nations. Inevitably, it must assume some aspects of a world government."(1081)

Strategy for adoption of the Earth Charter

Gorbachev and Strong hope to gain UN adoption of the Earth Charter in 2002, during the UN Rio+10 Assembly.(1082) Steven Rockefeller, chairman of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, is "currently coordinating the drafting of the Earth Charter for the Earth Charter Commission and the Earth Council."(1083) The Rockefeller Brothers Fund is supporting Earth Charter activities in ten Third World countries.(1084) Global Education Associates and the Temple of Understanding, interfaith organizations that actively support the URI, also helped to draft the Earth Charter.(1085) The Interfaith Center of New York will seek endorsement of the Earth Charter at the December 1999 session of the Parliament of World Religions.(1086) James Parks Morton, of the Interfaith Center of New York, is a board member of the Earth Charter Project and of Global Green, USA (1086a) - an affiliate of Gorbachev's Green Cross International. Robert Muller supports adoption of the Charter.(1087) In April 1999, the URI chapter in Los Angeles sponsored a presentation by the religion writer of the Los Angeles Times on behalf of the Earth Charter and the URI.(1088) The YMCA, the Bahá'í International Community, the Soka Gakkai Buddhists, and the Sierra Club of Canada are also among the organizations supporting the drive for the Earth Charter.(1089)

Gorbachev describes the strategy that Green Cross will use worldwide - a combination of pressure on the status quo from below (with mass protests and political activism) and from above (using policy makers who are friendly to the cause):

"Any change in society is the result of the interaction of changes from above and from below. Changes from above are effected by leaders, by parliaments, by those who make decisions and approve laws and rules, who develop and define priorities and adopt budgets. The second category of changes are those implemented by ordinary citizens, social movements in the various parties, philosophers, by all who accept and develop new ideas, by those who protest and those who defend their dreams, their visions. These changes are not always visible, but through interaction of human beings, through personal contacts and direct influence they transform the spiritual climate. The two lines of change are interrelated. They reinforce each other. The ideas coming from the bottom up must be accepted by the authorities above, but the decisions taken above cannot succeed without support from below. If from this standpoint you look at the ecological situation it becomes apparent that many things must happen along both of those lines of change and particularly in terms of their interaction. Helping to bring about this interaction is what Green Cross International is going to do."(1090)

The Charter is being circulated worldwide, "with the goal of enlisting wide support for the document and its principles in civil society, religious communities, and national councils of sustainable development. Special efforts will be made to promote the adoption of Earth Charter values in all sectors of society and to integrate Earth Charter values into educational programs."(1091) They will also seek to influence "the teachings of formal and non formal educational institutions and of spiritual and religious groups," and to redirect "popular culture by mobilizing public opinion for sustainable development through mass media."(1092) Charter planners intend to "translate the Earth Charter principles" into codes of conduct for doctors, lawyers, engineers, and financial managers.(1093) They are also planning national campaigns:

* "To translate the Earth Charter principles into values' [sic] curriculum and training pedagogy of both formal and informal educational institutions such as schools, scouting movement, formation groups, etc. * To make the Earth Charter principles part of the teachings and instructions of religious and spiritual groups."(1094)

>From school to church to work - the Earth Charter planners want to teach everybody the new Ten Commandments.

The writers of the Charter intend to create "soft law," establishing internationally accepted principles that will serve as the basis of future national and international legislation. The Charter will be, in the words of the Earth Council:

"a declaration of principles that can serve as a 'soft law' document when endorsed by the UN General Assembly. ... The Earth Charter concentrates on fundamental principles. It does not seek to set forth the many practical and legal implications of these principles. It leaves to the IUCN Draft Covenant on Environment and Development and other hard law treaties to lay out in full the legal principles that should guide state behavior and interstate relations."(1095)

In addition, the Earth Charter campaign has "a workplan that incorporates four separate but mutually reinforcing strategic programs." (1096) One of these four programs is:

"2. Defining a legislative agenda for sustainable development, by ensuring coherence between international, regional and national agreements, preparing a legislative framework for national sustainability and promoting implementation of sustainable development through local authorities."(1097)

Local and international laws must work together. Earth Charter proponents at the "Center for Respect of Life and Environment" say that local initiatives for sustainable development:

"are only possible within a strong international framework of 'good globalization' where UN/WTO-type organizations demand and enforce ecologically sound, socially just, spiritually-awakening, and humane standards as well as 'free' trade agreements."(1098)

By design, the Earth Charter will affect the laws and regulations that govern our lives, from City Hall to Washington DC.

Velvet glove: the Earth Charter's soft socialism

The basis of the Earth Charter is the belief that "Earth, our home, is alive with a unique community of life" (1099) - the Gaia hypothesis. The Charter states that "A dramatic rise in population has increased the pressures on ecological systems and has overburdened social systems." (1100) This is the "Population Bomb" argument.

The Charter preamble suggests that "We can resolve to balance and harmonize individual interests with the common good, freedom with responsibility, diversity with unity, short term objectives with long term goals, economic progress with the flourishing of ecological systems."(1101) This assumes that the human race is a unitary "we" that can arrive at a "balance" of these interests that is acceptable to all. Language contrasting self-interest and the common good is not original; a founding slogan of the Nazis was "Gemeinnutz vor Eigennutz" - "Common Good before Personal Gain." (1102) To bring about the desired changes, everyone must update their beliefs: "The challenges humanity faces can only be met if people everywhere acquire an awareness of global interdependence, identify themselves with the larger world, and decide to live with a sense of universal responsibility." (1103)

The Charter writers wish us to "promote the equitable distribution of wealth" (1104) and to "affirm and promote gender equality as a prerequisite to sustainable development." (1105) We are to "treat all living beings with compassion and protect them from cruelty and wanton destruction," (1106) However, there is a caveat excluding unborn children from compassion for "all living beings" - a call to "provide universal access to health care that fosters reproductive health and responsible reproduction." (1107) (For UN officials, "reproductive health" is a code word for abortion and artificial contraception.) The drafters of the Earth Charter do wish to "establish and protect the freedom of association and the right to dissent on matters of environmental, economic, and social policy."(1108)

Iron fist: the "Green Cross Earth Charter Philosophy" blueprint for totalitarianism

However, another document on the Earth Charter web site, "The Green Cross Earth Charter Philosophy," takes a much harder line. First comes the call for "fundamental economic, social and cultural changes":

"7. The current course of development is thus clearly unsustainable. Current problems cannot be solved by piecemeal measures. More of the same is not enough. Radical change from the current trajectory is not an option, but an absolute necessity. Fundamental economic, social and cultural changes that address the root causes of poverty and environmental degradation are required and they are required now."(1109)

Then comes the call for zero population growth and zero economic growth. The needs of the world's poor will be met by "reducing material over-consumption by the rich minority:"

"Principle 6 Stabilization of the World's Population (a) World population must stabilize. Such a balance can be reached through cooperation: an improvement in living conditions, quality of life, fairness, education and the eradication of poverty. Principle 7 Zero-Growth of Material Economy (a) Even allowing for rapid technological improvements, resources are finite. A basic sustainable level of per capita material consumption will have to be reached in accordance with the Earth's natural resource constraints. This requires both increasing the material consumption of the people now living in poverty and reducing material over-consumption by the rich minority." (1110)

Scientific uncertainty about the efficiency, efficacy, and necessity of radical environmental policies will not be allowed to interfere:

"Principle 12 Precautionary Principle (a) Precaution must be the basic organizing principle of environmental management. Scientific uncertainty should be used for objective assessment and not as an excuse for delaying action. Principle 13 Prevention of Environmental Damage (a) Protection of the environment is most effective when environmental harm is prevented rather than cured. End-of-pipe solutions are not sustainable and must be replaced by preventive action which stops problems before they arise. Prevention ensures a common inheritance for future generations." (1111)

To enforce all this, there must be "global sovereignty" which must not be "subservient to the rules of state sovereignty, demands of the free market or individual rights." The new international ruler must have "independence and power to facilitate agreement between all societal actors:"

"Principle 14 Global Sovereignty (a) The protection of the Biosphere, as the Common Interest of Humanity, must not be subservient to the rules of state sovereignty, demands of the free market or individual rights. The idea of Global Sovereignty must be supported by a shift in values which recognize this Common Interest. Implementation 1. The creation of an international body for the Sustainability of Human Life on the Earth. This body must have the independence and power to facilitate agreement between all societal actors to support the protection of the Biosphere as the Common Interest of Humanity."(1112)

At the 1995 State of the World Forum, Maurice Strong said regarding the Earth Charter: "We shouldn't wait until political democracy paves the way. We must act now."(1113) Then, after the Charter is adopted and implemented - with or without a democratic process - the new "international body" will not "be subservient to the rules of state sovereignty, demands of the free market or individual rights." Such are the principles that Gorbachev and Strong - and their collaborators in the interfaith movement - would have us adopt as a new covenant with the earth, a new Ten Commandments.

Can it happen?: Maurice Strong's global influence

Maurice Strong has the position and the influence to make himself heard worldwide. Strong, Chairman of the Earth Council, is on the board of the World Economic Forum (WEF); Klaus Schwab, president and founder of the WEF, is a member of the Earth Council.(1114) The WEF, which meets annually in Davos, Switzerland, describes itself - with good reason(1115) - as "the most significant global business summit bringing together close to 2,000 business and political leaders, experts, academics, and members of the media, to set the global agenda for the coming year." (1116) For example, Bill Gates, Yasser Arafat, Benjamin Netanyahu, Muhammad Hosni Mubarak (President of Egypt), Donna Shalala (Secretary of Health and Human Services), Viktor Chernomyrdin (Prime Minister of Russia), the presidents of Romania, Hungary, and Poland, Kofi Annan (UN Secretary General), Michael Bon (CEO of France Telecom), John Smith (CEO of General Motors), Peter Sutherland (Chairman of Goldman-Sachs), Kim Woo-Choong (Chairman of Daewoo Corporation), and Jürgen Schrempp (Chairman of Daimler-Benz) attended the 1997 session of the World Economic Forum. (1117) According to Forbes magazine, George Soros is one of the "regulars" at these meetings.(1118)

Maurice Strong says, "the Earth Council will be playing a role in helping to orchestrate the environmental and sustainable development input into the Trustee 21 initiative" of the World Economic Forum.1119 The price tag for hearing this environmental message is high. Companies attending the World Economic Forum must have annual sales of $1 billion or more, and the per head cost - counting Forum dues, travel costs, and the like - of attending the Davos Forum "can add up to $30,000 or $40,000 per head." (1120) These are the people whom we are asked to trust with planning our future, a venture that Strong calls "cooperative globalism." (1121)

Footnotes:

NOTE: Internet document citations are based on research done between September 1997 and August 1999. Web citations are accurate as of the time the Web page was printed, but some documents may have been moved to a different Web site since then, or they may have been removed entirely from the Web.

11 Green Cross International, "Interview," Los Angeles Times, May 8, 1997, Internet document, http://www4.gve.ch/gci/GreenCrossFamily/gorby/newspeeches/interviews/laTimes.html, p. 4

12 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter: The Green Cross Philosophy," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/report/special/greencross.htm, p. 5

...

1068 Mahbub ul Haq, Convener, "The Environment: Final Report on the Working Roundtables," September 30, 1995, Internet document, http://www.well.com/user/wforum/transcripts/themes/6enviro1.html, p. 2; no longer on the Net

1069 Green Cross International, "The Hague Speech by Mikhail Gorbachev - the Hague, 24 May 1993 - Extracts," Internet document, http://www4.gve.ch/gci/GreenCrossFamily/gorby/hague.html, p. 1

1070 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Historical Overview: II. The Earth Charter Project, 1994-2000," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/welcome/overview2.htm, p. 1

1071 Green Cross International, "Board of Directors," Internet document, http://www.globalgreen.org/bios.html, p. 3

1072 Green Cross International, "Green Cross International Millennium Awards," Internet document, http://www.globalgreen.org/recipient98.html, p. 2

1073 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Historical Overview: I. Historical Background, 1945-1992," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/welcome/overview.htm, p. 2

1074 Maurice Strong, address to government representatives at the 1992 Earth Summit, as quoted by Patricia and Gerald Mische, "Religion and World Order Program: Rationale and Context," Global Education Associates, Internet document, http://www.globaleduc.org/rwocont.htm, p. 4

1075 Manitou Foundation, "Crestone/Baca, Colorado, U.S.A.," Internet document, http://www.manitou.org/faq.html, p. 1

1076 Manitou Foundation, "Religious Centers and Spiritual Projects," Internet document, http://www.manitou.org/mf_spiritual_ctrs.html, p. 1

1077 Manitou Institute, "Objectives & History," Internet document, http://www.maintou.org/mi_obj_hx.html, p. 1

1078 The Earth Council, "Indigenous Peoples, Mother Earth, and Spirituality," Internet document, http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/indig/conventi/artieng.htm, pp. 1-2

1079 Green Cross International, "Interview," Los Angeles Times, May 8, 1997, Internet document, http://www4.gve.ch/gci/GreenCrossFamily/gorby/newspeeches/interviews/laTimes.html, pp. 3-4

1080 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Interview: Maurice Strong on a 'People's Earth Charter'," March 5, 1998, Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/welcome/mstrong.htm, p. 3

1081 Green Cross International, "The Founding Speech of Green Cross, by President Mikhail Gorbachev," Kyoto, Japan, April 20, 1993, Internet document, http://www4.gve.ch/gci/GreenCrossFamily/gorby/FoundingspeechGorbi.html, p. 7

1082 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Program for the Earth Charter Millennium Campaign," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/millennium/index.htm, p. 3

1083 State of the World Forum, "People," Internet document, http://www.worldforum98.org/people/letter_R.html, p. 4; The Earth Charter Campaign, "Program for the Earth Charter Millennium Campaign," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/millennium/index.htm, p. 3

1084 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Annex 1 - Millennium Campaign: Mapping of the Target Countries to be Involved with the Earth Charter by the end of 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/millennium/annex1.htm, p. 1

1085 Bahá'í International Community, photograph of Earth Charter supporters, Internet document, http://www.onecountry.org/oc84/oc8407cp.html

1086 Earth Charter Campaign, "Earth Charter Bulletin, March 1998 - Religious Endorsement Sought," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/newsletter/9803/endorse.htm

1086a Interfaith Center of New York, "Bio: The Very Reverend James Parks Morton," Internet document, http://www.interfaithcenter.org/JPMBio.html, pp. 2, 3

1087 Robert Muller, 2000 Ideas And Dreams For A Better World, Idea 1008, 14 April 1997, Internet document, http://www.lsw.org/ideas/RMideas.html

1088 April 18, 1999 posting on deja.com, an Internet news group search engine; "URI in the world," URI Update, no. 5, spring 1999, p. 3

1089 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Annex 2: The International Resource Team," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/millennium/annex2.htm, p. 2; The Earth Charter Campaign, "International Partners," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/consultation/partners/index.htm, p. 1

1090 Green Cross International, "The Hague Speech by Mikhail Gorbachev - the Hague, 24 May 1993 - Extracts," Internet document, http://www4.gve.ch/gci/GreenCrossFamily/gorby/hague.html, p. 3

1091 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Historical Overview: II. The Earth Charter Project, 1994-2000," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/welcome/overview2.htm, p. 2

1092 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Campaign Goal & Focus," Earth Council Strategy 1997-2000 - 'Making Sustainability Work'," Internet document, http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/about/strategy/goal_en.htm, p. 1

 

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1093 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Program for the Earth Charter Millennium Campaign," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/millennium/index.htm, p. 4

1094 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Program for the Earth Charter Millennium Campaign," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/millennium/index.htm, p. 4

1095 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Historical Overview: III. The Earth Charter Concept," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/welcome/overview3.htm, p. 1

1096 The Earth Council, "Earth Council Interim Report on Activities," Internet document, http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/interim.htm, p. 1

1097 The Earth Council, "Earth Council Interim Report on Activities," Internet document, http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/interim.htm, p. 2

1098 The Earth Charter Campaign, "Center for Respect of Life and Environment - CRLE," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/report/special/crle.htm, p. 2

1099 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter - Benchmark Draft II, April 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/draft/, p. 1

1100 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter - Benchmark Draft II, April 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/draft/, p. 1

1101 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter - Benchmark Draft II, April 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/draft/, p. 1

1102 German Bundestag Press and Information Centre, Questions on German History: Ideas, forces, decisions from 1800 to the present, 1984, 2nd ed., "the NSDAP programme of 1920" - photo of original, with accompanying English translation, from photo section between pp. 304 and 311 (plate VI-214)

1103 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter - Benchmark Draft II, April 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/draft/, p. 2

1104 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter - Benchmark Draft II, April 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/draft/, p. 4

1105 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter - Benchmark Draft II, April 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/draft/, p. 6

1106 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter - Benchmark Draft II, April 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/draft/, p. 3

1107 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter - Benchmark Draft II, April 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/draft/, p. 4

1108 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter - Benchmark Draft II, April 1999," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/draft/, p. 5

1109 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter: The Green Cross Philosophy," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/report/special/greencross.htm, p. 2

1110 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter: The Green Cross Philosophy," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/report/special/greencross.htm, p. 3

1111 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter: The Green Cross Philosophy," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/report/special/greencross.htm, pp. 4-5

1112 The Earth Charter Campaign, "The Earth Charter: The Green Cross Philosophy," Internet document, http://www.earthcharter.org/report/special/greencross.htm, p. 5

1113 Anita Coolidge, "Ecology: The ultimate democracy - A report from the State of the World Forum," San Diego Earth Times, November 1995, Internet document, http://www.sdearthtimes.com/et1195/et1195s3.html, p. 3

1114 Pranay Gupte, "Maurice Strong: Reaching out to broad range of constituencies for millennium," Earth Times News Service; Internet document, http://www.earthtimes.org/trustees21/trustees21mauricestrongfeb21_98.htm, p. 4

1115 See, for example, The World Economic Forum, "The World Economic Forum's Timeline," 1996, Internet document, http://www.weforum.org/basic/about/history.htm, and Tad Szulc, "One of the greatest shows on earth," Forbes, December 2, 1996, pp. 67-79

1116 World Economic Forum, 1997 press release number 5, "Business leaders, politicians, and opinion makers gather in Davos to set global agenda;" Internet document, http://www.weforum.org/basic/press/am97/97ampr20.htm, p. 3

1117 World Economic Forum, 1997 press release number 5, "Business leaders, politicians, and opinion makers gather in Davos to set global agenda;" Internet document, http://www.weforum.org/basic/press/am97/97ampr20.htm, pp. 1-3

1118 Tad Szulc, "One of the greatest shows on earth," Forbes, December 2, 1996, p. 68

1119 Pranay Gupte, "Maurice Strong: Reaching out to broad range of constituencies for millennium," Earth Times News Service; Internet document, http://www.earthtimes.org/trustees21/trustees21mauricestrongfeb21_98.htm, p. 4

1120 Tad Szulc, "One of the greatest shows on earth," Forbes, December 2, 1996, p. 79

1121 Pranay Gupte, "Maurice Strong: Reaching out to broad range of constituencies for millennium," Earth Times News Service; Internet document, http://www.earthtimes.org/trustees21/trustees21mauricestrongfeb21_98.htm, p. 2

 

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